Friday, December 28, 2007

Imran on Benazir

From a press conference that Imran Khan addressed in Mumbai while Benazir Bhutto's funeral was on in Larkana:

It's not just me saying this...we all hold General Musharraf responsible for Benazir Bhutto's death. When she arrived in Pakistan, from that moment onwards she was under threat. The people targeting Musharraf would eventually target her.

If he moved with the highest security around himself...on land, in air...he would not move without an aerial cover or a cordon around him...why did he not ensure the same level of protection for Benazir?

Why is there no proper inquiry into the matter? Now there are talks of a judicial inquiry. Of what use is a judicial inquiry when 60 per cent of our judges have been sent home? I say, reinstate the judiciary. We have no faith in these puppets that Musharraf has installed to take care of our courts.

There is no point in going ahead with these sham elections. Benazir kept insisting that the elections would be rigged. What the country needs right now is a process of free and fair elections...a caretaker government elected by consensus. Rather than keep digging further into the hole that Musharraf has plunged our country into, it is time to step out. Musharraf needs to step down now.

This, particularly because he has not succeeded in ending the terrorist threat in the last six years. If Benazir was not safe, if people attending Nawaz Sharif's rally were not safe, who in Pakistan is safe? What will fight terrorism right now is a democratic government, because a democratic setup is the only thing that will isolate terrorists. In trying to protect the US from Al Qaeda, Pakistan has only created troubles for itself.

It makes no sense to have elections right now. Who will step out to campaign, who will attend these rallies?

Who is to know what really happened to Benazir Bhutto?

No, I don't personally feel threatened. But anyone can be bumped off in Pakistan and then you can say Al Qaeda did it. If a man like me can be called a terrorist and sent to jail, anything can happen in Pakistan.

Pakistan is not going to be held ransom by terrorist forces but by anarchical ones. Musharraf had vowed to crush terrorism, now we find that terrorism is crushing us.

This blatant interference in other people's affairs (from the US) has to be condemned. The US backed Benazir as they would a horse, in a bid to have democracy in Pakistan, and that has led to this tragedy. The one mistake she made...she should have come with us (the democrats) and not have allowed the backing of the US.

What the US did in Iraq did not work. The same model cannot work in Pakistan. It cannot work anywhere. You can't win the war on terror in conventional ways. Let me tell you that terrorism is an idea; it's not an army you're fighting, you're not fighting the Al Qaeda or the Taliban or anyone in isolation. You (Pakistan) are now being targeted by those who had nothing to do with terrorism but who are now fighting in reaction to Pakistan's actions across the North west frontier and other places.

There is no military solution to terrorism, just a political one. We (his party) are ready to speak with anyone on this, except for Musharraf, because he is the problem now. He is not part of the solution.

I spoke to her April. I met her in Dubai. Memories I have of her? One, that she was braver than most men I know. Another one...the Benazir after her father's death was a very different Benazir than the one before. She was deeply affected by her father's death.

Thursday, December 27, 2007

Something, least pretend to do it

December 19, 2007

H/l: Coming soon: Parking lots, ring roads, monorail
Intro: First meeting to solve Pune’s traffic problems lists out possible solutions

From: Vrushali Lad

Mumbai: This is great news for a fast-expanding city grappling with the seemingly-unsourmountable problem of growing vehicular density and lack of road planning.
The state Urban Development (UD) department yesterday promised many more parking lots for Pune and 1,500 additional traffic personnel, as a first step towards solving the city’s traffic woes.

If really lucky, the city’s traffic issues could be eased by other modes of transport such as monorails, trams, metro rail and bus transport which functions with the kind of efficiency that the BEST does in neighbouring Mumbai, feels the government. Pune is also set to have a ring road network after feasibility studies are conducted for the same.

In the first high-level meeting held at the Mantralaya yesterday after these promises had been enumerated by CM Vilasrao Deshmukh during the monsoon session this year, Principal Secretary (UD) Ramanand Tiwari listed many solutions that the city’s governing bodies need to consider to ease the burgeoning traffic and allied problems such as lack of heavy and light traffic diversion, additional manpower to monitor road traffic and also the reduction in numbers of labourers who are working on the outskirts of Pune on various construction works.

The meeting was chaired by Tiwari and was attended by Pune mayor Rajlakhsmi Bhosale, civic chief Pravinsinh Pardeshi, Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC) chief Dilip Band, and MLAs Chandrakant Chhajed, Girish Bapat, Sharad Dhamale, Chandrakant Shivarkar, Vilas Lande and Kamlatai Dhole Patil.

Bhosale pointed out, “In the coming days, Pune will attract a lot of foreign investment, following which, there will be a host of projects underway in and around the city. It is important to provide the labourers working in these projects an incentive so that they will use the trains to enter and exit Pune, instead of using the roads.”

She also suggested a solution to phase heavy traffic out of the city. “The incomplete road works on the Katraj-Undri-Pisoli-Phursungi stretch, as well as the Phursungi-Theur-Fulgaon-Markhol-Dhanori-Chakan stretch, followed by the Wagholi-Bhavdi-Talapur stretch must be speedily finished to avoid bottlenecks and traffic jams,” she said.

A major proposal deliberated yesterday was the earmarking of parking lots at Sambhaji udyan, Pune station, the ST stand, Ambedkar road and Hamalwadi. The report on this is to come within a month.

“Whichever vacant spaces are lying with the government could be freed to construct two tiered parking lots, apart from setting aside one floor for parking in under-construction buildings, as well as allotting some space near the airport,” said Pardeshi.

Additionally, the PMC, PCMC and the public works department are to form a committee that will present a proposal to implement a workable ring road system for the city. “The proposal should function on the BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) principle, and must also look into the issue of long-pending road works in the city,” Tiwari advised.

What’s up with the city:
50 lakhs population of Pune this year
20 lakhs own/use vehicles
535 new vehicles registered everyday
825 new licenses given everyday
2 to 6 times vehicles as compared to road capacity

Friday, December 14, 2007

Helen ke Sholay

Saw Sholay for the umpteenth time recently, and like most films which are known for directorial and technical brilliance, I think Sholay is completely overrated in the latter aspect. Though I really like the film, I can say with complete candour that the following elements could easily have been avoided:
- Basanti. Not only was Hema Malini at her irritating best before Himesh Reshammiya took over that title, the character itself could have been avoided altogether. To give her some credibility, three lengthy songs and at least 20 unnecessary scenes had to be pushed in somehow.

- The long chases on horseback. The Gabbar aagey-Thakur peechhe- Thakur aagey- Gabbar peechhe sequences over hilly terrain to the accompaniment of some really kickass violins that sounded like squirrels being tickled hard, was not really what the doctor ordered.

- Most of the dialogues. Case in point: Saanp ko haathon se nahin maara jaata, pairon se kuchla jaata hai.

- Thakur kicking the crap out of Gabbar at the end. I mean, who does that? It's Gabbar, for chrissakes, not some retard football waiting for a good kick to the solar plexus. Also, Thakur was wearing a kurta two sizes too small.

Ah, but some elements were there for no other reason than to remain in my mind forever. Helen, for example. Close to her forties by then, (0kay, 36 years exactly), the woman is sexy enough to turn even a straight woman completely on and remain on for about two hours later. Oh, those swaying hips and that light spring all over the dance floor, as Gabbar openly leers at her. Watching her Mehbooba Mehbooba act for about the 100th time in my life, I just wondered what it exactly was about Helen that was 100% seductive and 0% unobscene all at the same time, and how it is that for all our Fuckiras, there is not a single woman who can do a sexy number with the same fire and appeal as Helen aunty.

And oh, Jaya Bhaduri...

Sholay could have been technically stronger, and in some places, the script begs for a complete rewrite. But you still end up liking it. There's plenty of scope to poke fun at many points, especially when you have witty parents such as mine who like the movie but who can reduce it to nothing with a few choice comments...but you take back a lot from a film that made over $ 60 million after release and which still runs to packed houses anywhere. And Gabbar Singh has lots to do with it.

Thursday, December 13, 2007

I feel sick.

December 6, 2007

H/l: India is world sickness capital, says WHO
Intro: Highest numbers for polio, diphtheria, measles and tetanus from 1980 onwards

Mumbai: At a time when the country is marching ahead in medical research and patient care, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has come out with some statistics that should shake us out of our rosy dreams. In a list outlining the health scene of the world, WHO’s figures for India put the country firmly at the number one spot for polio, tetanus, measles and diphtheria for a whopping 26 years.

As per data recently made public from year 1980 onwards, year 2006 has shown that numbers of patients for these diseases is lower than in 2005. However, when compared to the global statistics, in 2006, India has consistently shown the highest numbers of patients for diphtheria (2,472), measles (60,751), polio (676) and Tetanus (2,587) and pertussis or whooping cough (22,616).

Sample these: from 1980 to 2006, India has had the highest figures for tetanus (4,99,536), polio (2,91,474), diphtheria (2,68,613) and pertussis (27,64,253).

In terms of India alone, comparisons made between numbers from 1980 to 2006 show that there has been a steady or, in some cases, relatively sharp decline in recorded cases across all diseases. But again, there is not a single year when India has reported zero cases for any of these diseases, as is the case with some countries like China, which has shown only three cases of polio after 1995 when the country had 165 cases.

China, at 67,74,967, has the highest numbers of reported cases of measles in the world.

A study of the global figures for all the diseases listed shows a few noteworthy trends. Developed nations such as the US and China have shown a drastic drop in reported cases after 1996, with these nations showing zero cases in such diseases as polio and diphtheria.

In fact, except for pertussis, the developed countries show zero reported cases for ten years between 1996 to 2006. wherever cases are reported, the maximum are to be found in India, Pakistan, Nigeria and Bangladesh (see box).

Pertussis, on the other hand, seems to be the bane of many countries, including the developed ones, which show consistent three-figure or higher cases in all 26 years. Only some countries, like Antigua and Barboda, Bahamas, Egypt, Gambia, Grenada, Mauritius, Maldives and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines registering almost zero cases in the study period.

As per the figures, it is obvious that either India’s expenditure on health and overall healthcare is not on the right track, or that there is some lacunae in reporting of cases in other countries.

Others keeping India company:
- Polio: Nigeria (18,948), Pakistan (26,905) and Egypt (12,455)
- Diphtheria: Russian Federation (1,21,660), Phillipines (21,548), Bangladesh (17,136)
- Tetanus: Nigeria (57,135), Bangladesh (60,085), Egypt (1,10,088), Cambodia (16,966), Brazil (37,028), Bangladesh (60,085)
- Pertussis: Bangladesh (3,51,146), Italy (2,54,756), Nigeria (8,73,343), USA (1,35,650), Vietnam (5,53,592), Australia (89,973),

Monday, December 10, 2007

"Is there something on Kareena?"

So I was, for the first time ever, going to office at the absurdly early time of 11.30 a.m. And after browsing through my mandatory train reading - Mumbai Mirror and DNA - I was sitting quietly and thinking of cheese pizza, when the lady seated opposite me tapped my knee and said,
"Could I see your paper?"
Thinking that this was a middle-aged, expensively dressed woman who probably wanted to see a broadsheet at that time of the morning, I handed her the DNA. She said,
"Is there something on Kareena in there?"


I silently handed her the Mumbai Mirror, which carried back-to-back 'news' items on the Kapoor woman, wondering all the while...There's Modi on the front page of MM...DNA's got a fair share of political and crime reporting...both papers are actually full of newsy stuff today, something that both papers are not in the habit of doing...and she wants to read Kareena Kapoor?

Once she was done devouring both the pages, which carried news of such national importance as a) Both Kapoor sisters have been offered a film together but they haven't selected a script yet, and b) Kareena is finally cyber-savvy after Saif Ali Khan gifted her a laptop (!), I asked her, "Are you a Kareena fan, then?"

She smiled and said, "Not much, but I like to look at her pictures. She's lost so much weight, na? And I actually liked her in her newest movie. I really think she did a good job by splitting with that good-for-nothing bugger, that Shahid...see Saif, he matches her personality, na?"

I asked her what she did, thinking in my stereotypical way that this woman must be a) A bored housewife, or b) Just bored in general. Conceive my emotion when she said, "I'm a professor of political science at ___ College." Continue conceiving my emotion when she calmly informed me that she only picks up papers for the entertainment news. "The other news is so depressing, ya," she chuckled. "Who wants to read that?"

So after all the maara-mari we idiots are doing here about delivering news that is interesting to the reader and factually accurate, there are actually some people who don't want to read it. After trawling through pages of reports to understand what the IAEA fuss is about, what our cities have to show for their pollution-controlling efforts and other such items of general interest that concern us all, there are educated subscribers for whom the front page of the newspaper begins with the entertainment section.

My story for the day is to find out if Kareena has learnt how to download wallpapers yet, and if her current screensaver has pics of Saif (though only somebody with the brains of a retarded, stillborn monkey would actually do that). If that's what some of my public wants, okay, they'll get it.

Moral of the story: The current age of internet illiteracy is pegged at somewhere about 55 years worldwide. Of these, about 40 per cent do not read books, nor do they play games. Has Kareena considered being Brand Ambassador of the 'I Don't Do Anything Useful And I'm Just A Jackass' Contingent? I'm sure you'd read that.

Sunday, December 9, 2007

Hackers, ahoy!

Yeah well, Pune is cool too...

December 7, 2007

H/l: Hackers descending at city's ICC on Sunday
Intro: Country’s first computer hackers’ convention happens this week at Pune

From: Vrushali Lad

Mumbai: Reinforcing the city’s IT status, the country’s first ever convention for computer hackers – Club Hack – is all set to roll this Sunday at the International Convention Centre. Sadly, only computer systems geeks are invited and if you couldn’t make it this year, you can try in 2008.

Speaking to The Herald yesterday, founder of Club Hack, Rohit Srivastava said, “We got a great response to the convention, and from the papers we received since we opened entry in August this year, we have finalised 13 speakers. Of these, two are coming from overseas.”

The biggest boost to the endeavour, he said, was that of the 200 attendees pencilled in for the event, nearly 150 are Puneites. “We received a phenomenal response from techies in the city, as also other places like Bangalore and Hyderabad. We are hopeful that the one-day convention would be fruitful.”

Since the convention centers around the highly-sensitive area of computer system expertise – hacking, which is normally associated with cyber crime – the city’s police force will also be present in some number to “prevent any untoward incidents”.

Hackers are an exclusive band of people that are difficult to trace because they are not officially affiliated with any organisation. Said Rohit, who provides consultancy and training in information security, penetration testing and cyber crime investigation, “Some of the attendees are CEOs of top IT companies, while others are security researchers or even virus research analysts. We will have talks of one hour each on two parallel tracks.”

In today's tech-savvy world, hackers are in great demand by companies who hire them specifically for hacking purposes. "Through our convention, we would not be promoting the illegal aspects of hacking, but would be focussing on the technical and skills aspect. We are looking at presentations on Information Security," explained Tarun Chandel, Mumbai coordinator for the event.

What to expect at the convention:
- Amish Shah – The future of automated web application testing
- Ajit Hatti – Legiment techniques of IPS/ IDS evasion
- Chetan Gupta – Mining digital evidence in MS windows
- David Hulton – Faster PwninG assured: cracking crypto with FPGAs
- Dror Shalev – Crazy toaster: can home devices turn against us?
- Gaurav Saha – Vulnerabilities in VoIP products and services
- Rahul Mohandas – Analysis of adversarial code: the role of Malware kits
- Rohas Nagpal – 7 years of Indian IT Act: best cases
- Shreeraj Shah – Hacking web 2.0: Art and Science of vulnerability detection
- Sunil Arora – Backdoor 2.0: hacking Firefox to steal his web secrets
- Varun Sharma – Subtle security flaws: why you must follow basic principles of software security
Umesh Nagori – the future of automated web application testing
Visit for more details

Thursday, December 6, 2007

Unmeritorious, technically deficient...phoooeeey!

December 5, 2007

H/l: State gets 5/13 on lake conservation proposals
Intro: Centre approves only five proposals; terms remaining as ‘technically deficient’

From: Vrushali Lad

Mumbai: The state will not be too happy with scoring just five out of 13 on the polluted lakes front. Looking to include 13 of its prominent polluted lakes under the National Lake Conservation Project (NCLP), Maharashtra has got approval on only five lakes.

The NCLP is a centre-initiated project for conservation and management of polluted lakes in the country, and under the project, funds are released in a phase-wise manner for the cleaning and upkeep of polluted lakes, as also the monitoring of pollution and closing down of polluting industrial units if any.

In the last approval phase during 2004-2005, 31 lake proposals received sanction under NCLP and funds of Rs 400 lakhs were approved. However, of the 13 proposals submitted by the government of Maharashtra to the Ministry of Environment and Forests earlier this year, only five have been approved for Rs 24.25 crores funding.

Minister for Environment and Forests, Namo Narain Meena informed the Lok Sabha in a written reply yesterday, that of the 13 proposals received, eight were rejected on grounds of being technically deficient or not falling within the mandate of the NLCP.
“However, five proposals for conservation have already been approved at a total estimated cost of Rs 24.25 crores.

The state government has been asked to scrutinise the remaining proposals at their level, keeping the NLCP guidelines in view and also to explore the possibilities of inclusion of some of these lakes in the State Conservation Plan through the state budget available for the purpose,” Meena informed the Sabha in the reply.

Wednesday, December 5, 2007

Ah, yes. We never thought of this one.

December 4, 2007

H/l: Airhostesses new conduits in passport scams?
Intro: 72 airhostesses under scanner; 1 arrested for attempting illegal passage of businessman to US

From: Vrushali Lad

Mumbai: Airline hostesses looking to transport relatives to the US and UK, for pleasure or for business, will be a worried lot from now on. A Jet Airways airhostess working in Mumbai was nabbed last week by crime branch officials for attempting an illegal passage of Ahmedabad businessman Rajesh Trivedi (32) to the US.

Trivedi, a computer professional, reportedly paid Rs 20 lakhs for a passport and visa, and was to pose as airline hostess Alia Rizvi’s (24) husband. Alia received some part of the money, and her role was to help in processing a fake marriage document and apply to the US Consulate for a visa.

Following this arrest, and after the US Consulate in Mumbai alerted cops since they “thought something was amiss” with Rizvi’s application to take her “husband” to the US on a “business trip”, crime branch officials have brought all such applications pending with the Consulate and made by airhostesses under its scanner.

As per figures furnished by the Consulate, said a senior official, 72 airline hostesses working with various reputed airlines have applied for the passage of their relatives to the US. “We are not saying that all these applications are fraudulent, but we are investigating each application for credibility,” he said.

However, quipped Rakesh Maria, joint police commissioner (crime), “The airlines are not to be blamed for their staff’s misdemeanours. That airhostesses are the middlemen for such scams shows individual entrepreneurial spirit.”

In this scam, Maria said, the crime branch has already arrested the main culprit, one Altaf Sayyad, an agent functioning out of a suburban office, apart from two other agents, one in Mira Road and the other in Ahmedabad. “We are still ascertaining if there more agents and middlemen involved,” he said yesterday.

Eight passports have been seized in this connection, apart from fake stamps and visas. “This same group has sent three people in this year to the US,” Maria added. In a related case, the crime branch has cracked down on one Aslam Panchal who is responsible for making 45 fake passports and for sending as many people to the UK in two years.

You STILL without a voters' card? Join the gang.

December 3, 2007

H/l: 3 crore voters still without ID cards
Intro: Electoral office hopes to finish the process by January 2008

From: Vrushali Lad

Mumbai: In a state with exactly 6,90,66,242 eligible electors, as per the office of the Chief Electoral Office, it is a bit unfortunate that only three crore voters have got their ID cards for the Assembly elections in 2009.

“But this is an ongoing programme, and we hope that by January 1, 2008, all assembly constituencies would be covered,” said Debashish Chakrabarty, newly-appointed chief electoral officer, Maharashtra state.

Chakrabarty was speaking to media persons at Mantralaya yesterday, and announced that throughout December 2007, his office would be involved in the summary revision of electoral rolls. “This year, the process was a bit delayed but we are confident of finishing on the appointed date,” he assured.

There are 25,46,527 new electors in the state, with 3,54,557 deletions. “There has been a net addition of 21,91,970 electors,” Chakrabarty said, explaining that these additions have taken the number of electors in the state to over six crores. “182 constituencies have already received the photo Ids,” he said.

During this month, citizens are advised to get enrolled if their names are missing from the list, make objections or bring to notice any mistakes in ID cards issued or even apply for inclusion online (see box).

So far, the office has partly completed the draft publication of electoral rolls containing photographs of each elector. “So far, of the 288 assembly constituencies, we have finished this particular work in 108 constituencies. We will complete this part of the process by June 2008,” Chakrabarty said.

“I advise that wherever these draft rolls have already been published, electors must check if their photograph is correctly used,” he added. Of the 108, the process has been completed in three Pune districts - Indapur, Baramati and Junnar.

- December 4, 2007: Publication of draft roll
- December 4 to 19, 2007: Dates for receiving claims and objections at designated locations
- December 8 and 9, 2007: Special campaign dates
- January 31, 2008: Final publication of rolls
In case of any discrepancies, contact your Electoral Registration Officer or Designated officer. Online applications are accepted only in constituencies with municipal corporations.

Monday, December 3, 2007

Mohalle mein kaisi maara maar hai...

I refuse.
Yes, I got your point.
I still refuse.
That makes you unhappy? Shucks, that's bad.
Look, don't tell me what to do. I'm not telling you not to protest or effect a ban.
Yeah well, bite me. I'm still here.
So just because I said 'mochi' you thought I was talking about you? Why didn't you think I was referring to you when I said 'sonar'?
Oh, though. I wonder what the sonars are thinking.
Or, for that matter, the halwais.
Or even those who set up stalls in the village bazaars. One more protest coming up, if not two or three.
I think my dalit brethren are more educated now than they used to be. More skilled, with access to more opportunity in education and in the workplace.
I know a lot of the supposed dalits, who are making more money than I am, are more talented, are richer and who're going places with the sheer force of their personality. Or karma, if you prefer it.
So why the intolerance?
And why go out of your way to take offense?
Especially when none was meant? I'm sure none was meant.
At least the Censor Board didn't spot it.
I mean, seriously.
I could take offense to the song, too. It's basically about a girl who's up to no good.
So by your yardstick, all of womanhood's dignity is at stake.
Which would be set right if the song itself was deleted.
The way your dignity was restored when two lines of a song, which is at best a mediocre song, were deleted.
Makes me wonder why your dignity, standing in life and basic existence are threatened by one word here, another line there.
Hate to say this, but now I probably understand how some of the 'oppression' happened.

Sunday, December 2, 2007

Dip in HIV+ numbers, eh?

November 30, 2007

H/l: State anything but protected from AIDS threat
Intro: Drop in HIV prevalence among pregnant women; but rise in numbers among CSWs and male homosexuals. Fresh HIV+ infection every 20 seconds

Mumbai: Probably due to wide publicity and free distribution of contraceptives such as condoms, people in Maharashtra are at least more aware of HIV and AIDS, and there is a discernable drop in HIV prevalence among pregnant women as compared to year 2004-2005.

However, what is alarming is that the state registers a fresh HIV infection every 20 seconds, and is still ranked second, along with Karnataka, in the numbers of HIV-infected persons found. As per the 2007 AIDS Epidemic Update issued by the UN and WHO, “Data from extended sentinel surveillance for 2006 shows declined HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, but a higher prevalence among sex workers, and rising numbers of cases among injecting drug users and men having sex with men in these states.”

Even more worryingly, evidence points to higher figures of HIV prevalence in the western belt of Maharashtra, and also in areas of high industrial activity. The Health Education To Villages (HVET), an initiative in collaboration with the Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI), states that apart from Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra state shows the fastest transmission numbers for the virus.

The HVET’s explanation for the high numbers of HIV-positive persons in the state is that Maharashtra experiences a high 41 per cent of migrations annually, especially to the cities. Due to this or otherwise, the state has one of the highest numbers of HIV-infected commercial sex workers (50 to 60 per cent) and a huge 24 to 40 per cent hospital bed occupancy by HIV positive persons.

Maharashtra has registered higher numbers for adult HIV prevalence for the ages 15 to 49 for both sexes, at 0.62 per cent, higher than the national average of 0.36 per cent, as outlined in the National Family Health Survey 3 (NFHS 3). In this respect, the state has outranked Uttar Pradesh (0.07%) and Tamil Nadu (0.34%).

On the upside however, more people are now aware of the AIDS menace, as compared to previous years. As per NFHS 3, a high 89 per cent of urban women and 70 per cent of rural women are aware of HIV/AIDS, while 97 per cent urban men and 80 per cent rural men are aware of these. Condom use has also shot up in the state, and the primary sources of information are mass media.

- First HIV positive case in India reported in 1986
- Predominant route is hetero-sex
- 30 to 40% males above 16 years of age sexually active
- Most well established sex industry in state (brothel to non brothel)